Irrigation watercourse in Punjab Province

Resource System
Watershed and associated topography
Resource Units


The irrigation system being studied is located in the state of Punjab in Pakistan. The resource appropriated is water for irrigation. The authors find that farmers operate their irrigation system under a contradictory system of de jure and de facto rules. Illegal trading of water among farmers occurs frequently. Farmers use extra-legal means to obtain increased water supplies through bribes to Canal Department officials. Farmers organize predominately around brotherhood or kinship groups for many cooperative activities such as watercourse cleaning and private tubewells while a major cleavage exists across two castes on the watercourse.

This case was part of the original CPR database developed in the 1980s by Edella Schlager and Shui Yan Tang at Indiana University. The original CPR report can be found under the CPR tab in the Institutional Analysis section below.