Dynamics of coupled populations in an open, three-trophic-level system

Model Description

This model explicitly incorporates the immigration and emigration processes in the context of three-trophic-level systems (e.g., a stream reach), and reveals how the coupled populations will change in response to the primary-productivity gradients (e.g., r, K).  In contrast, traditional simple food-chain models study mostly two-trophic-level system which can be open or close.  More interstingly, though not reflected here, there are two contrasting models presented in the paper: the discrete-grazer model and individual-based model.  The extension from ODE, to pseudo-ABM, to ABM, and how the former becomes the special case of the latter, are very insightful.  Readers are encouraged to take a glance at the original paper.  

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